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A sketch map of Arabia showing the places and languages mentioned in the text, and the rough geographical division between the west, where languages were written, and the east where they were not. The letter ‘m’ is transformed in the animal’s right foreleg, the letter ‘d’ in the animal’s left foreleg. Script table of the Ancient North Arabian [ANA] alphabets. The stations of script use in relation to forms of memory ‘storage’. Protentions and retentions in the production of images. 13.3 Palace inscription in classical style (right, Shenyang Palace Museum, eighteenth century) and modern imitation with grammatical mistake ‘amgambi’ (left, Hetu Ala, Xinbin county, Liaoning Povince). 13.4 Trilingual inscription ‘Sin hûwa bithei puseli / Xinhua shudian / Xinhua Bookstore’ from Cabcal City, Cabcal Sibe autonomous county, Xinjiang Province. 13.5 Example of contemporary Manchu artistic calligraphy: the term ‘muduri’ (dragon) is written in such a way to depict graphically the mythological animal. Contents List of Illustrations vii List of Tables xii Notes on Contributors xiii Preface xvii 1. The Disappearance of the Linear A Script on Crete John Bennet 2. Until 1988 Jeremy Black was the director of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq. ISBN 978-1-84553-013-6 (hardback) Index by Jane Read, Typeset by Queenston Publishing, Hamilton, Canada Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire. That project also yielded a volume of translations, The Literature of Ancient Sumer (2004), by Jeremy Black, Graham Cunningham, Eleanor Robson, and Gábor Zólyomi. High-quality astronomical tablet of the Seleucid period, with information on new moons from 193–191 BC. The figure combines information from Moeller 1909: 15, 26; el-Aguizy 1998: 314, 316, 334; Verhoeven, 2001: 132–3 , 154–5; and Vleeming 1991: 192. Inscription of Kharamadoye in the Temple of Kalabsha. Table 5.1 Changes to language, script, and personal names at Chuisi, Perugia, and Arezzo. Table 5.2 Changes to language, script, and personal names at Naples Table 6.1 The Kharoṣṭhī script based on Aśokan inscriptions. 10 17 74 116 122 143 144 Notes on Contributors John Baines is Professor of Egyptology at the University of Oxford.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The disappearance of writing systems : perspectives on literacy and communication / edited by John Baines, John Bennet, and Stephen Houston. From 2002 to 2004, David was a full-time lecturer in Ancient History at University College, London, teaching Ancient Near Eastern History. Pair of lions from the entrance to the lower North Gate of the fortifications of Karatepe, Turkey, bearing part of the Phoenician and the Hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions of Azatiwada (ca. Courtesy Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. He has also focused on the role of writing in Egyptian society and on high-cultural legitimations and concerns of elites. Typical Elamite cuneiform of the Achaemenid period: Persepolis Fortification Tablet 1794, with seal impression on edge. Unpublished versus published demotic material from Soknopaiou Nesos in the Fayyum: Documentary texts (as of August 2004). His principal publications are on Egyptian art, literature, and religion.His current interests concern the nature of human intelligence.Recent works include Archaeology and Anthropology: A Changing Relationship (1999), Prehistory: A Very Short Introduction (2003), Archaeology and Colonialism (2004), Collecting Colonialism: Material Culture and Colonial Change in Papua New Guinea (with C. David Hawkins was until his retirement in 2005 Professor of Ancient Anatolian Languages at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His teaching was principally the Hittite and Akkadian languages, and his main research interest the Luwian language and its hieroglyphic script.

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