Summers are short, with hot days and cool nights, heavy rains in July and August.Autumns come gradually, without sharp changes of weather, sometimes autumns can be long and warm.The mountains occupy four times larger area than the lowlands.The highest point in the region is Mount Munku-Sardyk in East Sayan (3,491 meters).
In the 14th century, the Mongol Empire disintegrated into separate states.
In 1934, Verhneudinsk was renamed Ulan-Ude meaning “Red Uda” in Buryat language (the Uda is a river in the Trans-Baikal area, the right tributary of the Selenga).
By 1937, after the Soviet industrialization, there were 140 large industrial enterprises in the republic producing more than 70% of gross output of the region.
Until the 17th century, the territory of today’s Buryatia was part of the Mongolian state of North Yuan. By the beginning of the 17th century, the Russian state conquered the Western Siberia, came to the regions inhabited by the Mongol tribes and began to build forts and fortifications in the Baikal region.
At the same time, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread among the population of the Trans-Baikal region. Using the internecine conflict between the descendants of the Mongol rulers, Russia signed agreements with China in 1689 (the Treaty of Nerchinsk) and 1727.